Friday, 26 July 2019

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease?
CJD is a rare, degenerative, invariably a fatal brain disorder. It affects only about one person in every one million people per year worldwide. CJD usually appears in later life. Typically, the onset of symptoms occurs about age 60, and about 90 per cent of individuals die within 1 year. In the early stages of this disease, people may have behavioural changes, failing memory, visual disturbances and lack of coordination. As the illness progresses, blindness, mental deterioration becomes pronounced and involuntary movements, weakness and in worst cases coma may occur. It can be of 3 types i: e; sporadic CJD, hereditary CJD, acquired CJD.


CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. Initially, individuals experience problems with personality changes, muscular coordination, including impaired memory, judgment, thinking and impaired vision. People with the disease also may experience depression, insomnia, or unusual sensations. As the illness progresses, mental impairment becomes severe. Individuals often develop involuntary muscle jerks called myoclonus and they may go blind. They eventually lose the ability to move and speak and finally enter a coma.

How is CJD Diagnosed?
There is currently no diagnostic test for CJD. When a doctor suspects CJD, the first concern is to rule out treatable forms of dementia such as encephalitis or chronic meningitis. A neurological examination will be performed. Standard diagnostic tests will include a spinal tap to rule out more common causes of dementia and an EEG to record the brain's electrical pattern, which will show a specific type of abnormality in CJD. Computerized tomography of the brain can help rule out the possibility that the symptoms result from other problems such as stroke or a brain tumour. MRI brain scans can also reveal characteristic patterns of brain degeneration that can help diagnose CJD. 

There is no specific treatment that can cure or control Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Researchers have tested many drugs, including steroids, amantadine, acyclovir, interferon, antibiotics and antiviral agents. Studies of a number of other drugs are now in progress. However, so far none of these treatments has shown any consistent benefit in humans.

How is CJD Transmitted?
CJD cannot be transmitted through the air or touching or other forms of casual contact. Spouses and other household members of sporadic CJD patients have no higher risk of contracting the disease than the general population. However, exposure to spinal cord fluid and brain tissue from infected individuals should be avoided to prevent transmission of the disease.

How Can People Avoid Spreading the Disease?
To reduce very low risk of CJD transmission from one person to another, people should never donate tissues, blood, or organs. Normal sterilization procedures such as washing, cooking, and boiling do not destroy prions. Caregivers, healthcare workers, and undertakers should take the following precautions when they are working with a person with CJD:

  • Cover cuts and abrasions with waterproof dressings.
  • Avoid cutting themselves with instruments contaminated by the patient's blood or other tissues.
  • Wear surgical gloves when handling a patient's fluids and tissues or while dressing the patient's wounds.
  • Use face protection if there is a risk of splashing contaminated materials such as cerebrospinal fluid or blood.
  • Use disposable bedclothes for contact with the patient. If disposable materials are not available, the regular cloth should be soaked in undiluted with chlorine bleach for an hour or more.
  • Soak instruments that have come in contact with the patient in undiluted chlorine bleach for an hour or more, then use an autoclave to sterilize them in distilled water for at least one hour at 132-134 degrees Centigrade.

Friday, 28 June 2019

Foods that kills Bacteria & Germs

Our body works really hard to constantly fight bacteria, germs and viruses and other microbes that we may ingest through the air we breathe or the food we eat. Whether it’s a dreadful skin infection or a common flu, bad bacteria may compromise our health and therefore, our internal defense mechanism needs to be always active to get rid of infections and other diseases. Our immune system is very powerful but sometimes it needs help which can be provided in the form of these anti-bacterial and anti-microbial foods which can fight with Bacteria and germs that enters our body naturally.

Garlic is a powerful anti-bacterial which can fight infections like yeast infections, fungal infections and candida overgrowth. It may taste repulsive but this is a traditional remedy to maintain health and protect our self from diseases is to have raw garlic on an empty stomach. It also contains a natural protective compound called allicin and other volatile oils, which kills germs.
Honey is one of the first natural anti-microbial medicines to be used. It contains live enzymes that releases hydrogen peroxide, which is well known to kill germs and unwanted foreign elements that enters our body. We can Start our day with a teaspoon of honey and warm water.
This super spice from ancient times has become the talk of the town owing to its own medicinal properties. Turmeric has always been known as a great antiseptic used to heal wounds and cuts, but it is also a wonderful anti-bacterial that can keep our internal systems clean. Drinking a glass of turmeric milk every day is one of the best ways to bolster our immune system.
The anti-bacterial and ant-fungal properties of lemon enable it to fight bacteria that cause acne. It is full of Vitamin C, which also acts as an antioxidant to fights disease-causing free radicals in the body. 

Coconut Oil:
The anti-bacterial properties of coconut oil come from the presence of medium chain fatty acids or triglycerides (MCTs) found in it. The two most potent medium chain triglycerides found in coconut oil are lauric acid and caprylic acid. Research has shown that it can inactivate several types of bacteria, fungi, yeast and viruses. It is a great remedy to fight skin infections and allergies.

Ginger is an effective home remedy for common cold as well as throat infections. Sucking a piece of raw ginger and taking in all its juices daily is known to cure cough and kill the bacteria that has caused the infection. It also contains a group of chemical compounds known as sesquiterpene which are known to kill rhinoviruses, agents that cause cold.

You may have not known the health benefits of this juicy & sweet tropical fruit, but it acts as an amazing anti-bacterial that specially helps to fight invading cells that present in the mouth and throat. Fresh pineapple juice is known to cool the blood and reduce inflammation of the nose and the sinuses problems.

Friday, 14 June 2019

Why we probably shouldn’t Give Antacids to Infants

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very common among infants, but most outgrow it by the time they reach their first birthday, and it is rare for GERD to continue past the age of two. This condition occurs when acidic stomach contents move backward (reflux) into the lower esophagus, often because the muscle that connects the esophagus and stomach relaxes inappropriately or is weak. Symptoms of GERD in babies include routinely spitting up food or vomiting after eating, irritability or sudden crying after eating, a “wet burp” or “wet hiccup” sound, and poor weight gain or weight loss. Like adults with GERD, babies are probably experiencing the same discomfort of heartburn. To overcome this we give antacids to the infant which neutralizes stomach acidity.

Researchers say many antacids are ineffective in helping stomach problems while some may increase a baby’s risk for bone fractures. An infant’s pain can be heartbreaking to watch for some new parents. We instinctively want to make them better as quickly as possible. But sometimes the easiest solution comes with unexpected consequences. Infant reflux, which is also called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), is when stomach acid flows back into the tube connecting a baby’s mouth and stomach. It’s one reason why babies spit up. This condition is rarely serious. It happens less frequently as baby gets older.

Are antacids harmful to infants?
Acid suppression in infants may be appropriate in certain cases of GERD, there’s a growing body of evidence that acid-suppression medication use in infants is not only ineffective but may be associated with many adverse effects that include an increased risk of infections.

Common antacids that neutralize the body’s stomach acid to reduce the symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn.

Some of them are:
Milk of Magnesia

But there are two types of powerful antacids that have broader effects on the stomach as compared to the normal antacids.
H2 blockers which are also called histamine H2 receptor antagonists, work by actually decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach, rather than neutralizing the acids what’s already there. They include ranitidine (Zantac) and famotidine (Pepcid).

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are now the most commonly prescribed class of medication to relieve stomach acid-related disorders like GED or GRED. They work by completely blocking the cells that produce acid in the stomach. Examples of PPIs include omeprazole (Prilosec) and lansoprazole (Prevacid).

Smaller, more frequent feedings
Antacids aren’t the only way to relieve GER or GERD symptoms. There are many simple actions that parents can take on their own. Parents can try smaller, more frequent feeds and holding the infant upright for at least 20 minutes after a bottle as the first intervention. They should also be sure the babies are burping adequately.

Friday, 17 May 2019

Can HIV Infection Increases the Risk of Death Associated with Depressive Symptoms

According to a study, the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incur a higher chance of dying from depressive symptoms compared to patients without HIV. Depression affects approximately 20-40% of HIV patients making it the most frequently reported mental health condition in people living with the virus. Depressive disorders have previously been linked to augmented mortality in people with chronic diseases, including heart disease, end-stage renal disease and diabetes.

These comorbidities have made the management of any of the following conditions really challenging for caregivers and even more challenging for patients. Patients are subjects of many drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions since these patients often have to use multiple medications. Another way the disorder is impacting the healthcare system is increased labor and institutional cost. While it true that depression presents with many other pathological disorders for which numerous studies have confirmed, the association between depression and infectious diseases on the other hand has not been extensively studied.

Recently, in a study aimed to investigate the link among the wide range of depressive disorders or symptoms, HIV status of a patient and mortality, scientists discovered that symptoms of depression are associated with death among veterans with HIV but not among those without HIV infection.

The researchers were able to gather data from participants of the Veteran’s Aging Cohort Study. The researchers were able to compare the risk of death among Veterans who were depressed to those not suffering with depression. They then studied the relationship between depression and death among those infected with HIV to those without HIV. Depression was measured in two ways using depressive symptoms questionnaire and clinical diagnostic codes.

Among those with HIV infection, they were able to discover a 23% increased mortality risk associated with elevated depressive symptoms ascertained by the questionnaire but no significantly increased mortality risk when depression was ascertained by the codes. For HIV-uninfected people, there was a 6% increased mortality risk associated with depressive disorders measured by the codes but no significant increased mortality risk for elevated depressive symptoms assessed by the questionnaire.

It is important to screen for and treat depression particularly among those living with HIV due to the observation that important therapeutic progress, improved life-expectancy, and improved quality of life have been made through intervention with lifesaving antiretroviral. The results of their findings strengthened the need to assess and treat depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients with and without HIV infection with the aim of reducing mortality risk. The researchers were able to discover the clinical guidelines recommending routine screening for depressive symptoms, there is varying success in implementation resulting in under diagnosis of depression among people with HIV infection.

Friday, 10 May 2019

Are pickles good for you?

We all know that Pickling is an ancient food preservation technique. People can make pickles from almost any food. People preserve some pickles in fermented brine that contains beneficial bacteria, which means they can be a good addition to a healthful diet. Fermented pickles offer more health benefits than other. Even unfermented pickles are rich in vitamins such as vitamin K and vitamin A.
Pickles are fat-free and low in calories, except sodium they are low in other nutrients. People with high BP or cardiovascular health issues may want to avoid pickles.

The main benefit of pickles is that some pickles contain beneficial bacteria. People use brine to make pickles. Brine is water mixed with salt or vinegar which is an acid. Fermented brine contains good bacteria that may benefit for health. Fermented pickles acts like probiotics, they are protecting the body's microbiome and supporting the growth of healthful bacteria in the gut.
The stomach contains millions of bacteria that help the body digest and absorb food items. These bacteria may prevent yeast infections, help with constipation and diarrhea and potentially aid the treatment of chronic stomach health issues, like Crohn's disease. Fermented pickles are probiotic-rich, so they may prevent minor stomach issues and improves digestion.

Some limited research suggests that probiotics may offer other health benefits, like:
Reducing symptoms of anxiety & depression  
Reducing urinary tract infections
Managing diabetes
Preventing allergicDiseases
Treating gingivitis & cavities
Lowering the risk of some cancers, i:e; Colon Cancer

 Benefits of pickles
In addition to fermented pickles containing probiotics, pickles may offer these other health benefits:

1. Restoring electrolyte balance
Electrolytes are those salts that the body needs for healthy functioning. When a person experiences dehydration, they also lose electrolytes from body. Pickles are high in sodium so they are also high in electrolytes. Theoretically, this suggests that pickle juice might be an option for restoring electrolytes to people who are dehydrated or having illness like fever or vomiting.

2. Treating muscle cramps
Previous researches suggest that pickles may help with muscle cramps. Researchers electrically induced muscle cramps in well-hydrated men once and then again a week later. They found that participants who drank pickle juice rapidly gained relief from their cramps. They get to know that deionized water did not offer the same benefits, which means that electrolytes and hydration status alone did not explain the result. This suggests that somethingelse about pickles may help them with muscle cramps.  
3. Controlling blood sugar 
Pickles that consist of vinegar-based brine may help control blood glucose level. Stable blood glucose levels can help prevent intense hunger. Preventing blood glucose spikes is also critical to the health of a diabetic patient. However, people who are interested in a relatively easy way to help control blood sugar could consider eating pickles or other vinegar-rich food with meals.
4. Providing antioxidants
Similarly Vegetable and fruit pickles contain antioxidants. Studies in research have shown that antioxidants can counteract the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are chemicals in the body that might play a role in the development of a wide variety of health issues. These may include inflammation, cancer, heart disease and various chronic diseases. Free radicals many also contribute to the aging.

Friday, 3 May 2019

The impact of malnutrition on childhood infections

Almost half of all childhood deaths worldwide occur in children with malnutrition, predominantly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which malnutrition and serious infections interact with each other and with children's environments. This study involving not only lack of nutrients, but also other risk factors such as exposure to pathogens, lack of access to healthcare and poverty. This focusses on under nutrition among children in low and middle-income countries, with a focus on diarrhoea and pneumonia, the other commonest childhood life-threatening infections worldwide. 

Malnutrition is deficiency, excess or imbalance in a person's intake of energy and/or specific nutrients in relation to their requirements. Recently there has been increased focus on the use of mid-upper arm circumference by which provides better predictive value for mortality. However, cut offs to define malnutrition by MUAC based on its relationship with infectious disease or mortality outcomes had only been validated and used amongst children aged 6–59 months. Severe malnutrition can also be defined by the presence of kwashiorkor, a syndrome that is characterized by nutritional oedema, skin depigmentation, inflammation, sloughing etc.

Malnutrition may result in to a diet low in energy or specific nutrients, a wide range of antenatal & postnatal environmental exposures, acute infection, chronic illness or psychosocial neglect. Child malnutrition is the single and biggest contributor to under-five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness.

Children who do not reach their optimum height or consistently experience sessions of weight loss during childhood are affected in the long term infections. They do not reach their optimum size as adults, their brains are affected which results in low IQs and they are at greater risk of infection which kills may children during their early years.

Child malnutrition also impacts on education fulfilment. Vitamin A deficiency reduces immunity and increases the incidence and gravity of infectious diseases which results in increased school absenteeism. The degree of cognitive impairments is directly related to the Iron Deficiency Anaemia and severity of stunting.

Maternal malnutrition increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes including premature or low-birth-weight babies, obstructed labour, and postpartum haemorrhage. Severe anaemia during pregnancy is linked to increased mortality.

Low-birth-weight is a significant contributor to infant mortality. Moreover, low birth-weight babies who survive are likely to suffer growth retardation and illness throughout their life. Growth-retarded adult women are likely to carry on the vicious cycle of malnutrition by giving birth to low birth-weight babies.

Wednesday, 10 October 2018


About Conference

ME Conferences takes the immense Pleasure to invite participants from all over the world to attend the "2nd International Conference on Tropical and Infectious Diseases”, to be held in Bali, Indonesia during November 21-22, 2019. The conference program focuses on “ Innovative approaches for Infectious Diseases, Prevention and Control”. This gathering will strengthen the ideas about infectious Diseases and different aspects related to it. We attempt to provide a perfect stage to Researchers, Scholars, and key Speakers to share data and experiences and empower people with their deep knowledge of Human Infectious Diseases and aspire them to fight against the worldwide risk related to it. The convention meeting consists of discussion and workshops, keynote speeches, absolute talks, poster presentations, e-Poster introductions and a panel session on cutting-edge research traits within the field of Infectious diseases , Prevention, Control and Diagnosis of emerging Diseases.

Tropical Diseases 2019 is the only meeting where you can learn about Infectious Diseases from a variety of perspectives, both research-based and clinical. We will discuss the newest therapeutic techniques and diagnostic tools as well as the most up-to-date research on genetic, etiology, diagnostic, clinical aspects and novel therapies of Infectious diseases. Global Infections Conferences provides the time to collaborate with industry peers and discover knowledge and resources that can be used to achieve your personal and organizational goals. Infectious diseases meet incorporates, visitor addresses, keynotes, symposiums, workshops, presentations, board talks, poster sessions, and various summits for the all over participants. This meeting will unite many representatives which include worldwide Specialists, Researchers, Analysts, Understudies, Nurses, Exhibitors, Investigators, Microbiologists, Pathologists, Pharmacists, Professors and Industrial Pharmaceuticals and Business delegates everywhere in the globe to connect us Bali in November 2019 for the 2-day Tropical Diseases meet.

Why Tropical Diseases 2019?

  • Poster - paper presentations and world-class exhibitions
  • Opportunities to gain a deeper understanding of the topic
  • Intensifying  Interactive knowledge
  • Meet Academics and Industrial professionals to get inspired
  • Great credits for the work in progress
  • Valuable talks and symposiums from renowned speakers
  • Meaningful sessions and accomplishments

With members from over the world focused on learning about Infectious diseases and its advances; this is your best opportunity to reach the largest assemblage of participants from the Disease biology community. Conduct presentations, distribute information, meet with current and potential scientists, make a splash with new advancements and developments in Infectious Diseases, and receive name recognition at this 2-days event.

Target Audience

  • Microbiologists
  • Pathologists
  • Epidemiologists
  • Dermatologists
  • Allergists
  • Immunologists
  • Pediatricians
  • Physicians
  • Pharmacists
  • Neurologists
  • Veterinary Doctors
  • Infection Prevention and Infection Control Specialists
  • Academic and Health care Professionals
  • Students
  • Research Associates
  • Health Care Associations & Societies
  • Medical & Pharmacy Companies
  • Medical Devices and drug Manufacturing Companies
  • Laboratory Technicians and Diagnostic Companies
  • Business Entrepreneurs and Industrialists

Conference Highlights

Special Issues

  •  All accepted abstracts will be published in respective Supporting International Journals.
  •  Abstracts will be provided with Digital Object Identifier by Cross Ref.